The year 2005 marked the 250th anniversary of Chief Justice John Marshall's birth and the creation of a commemorative dollar coin to mark the event.
The obverse was designed by John Mercanti and features the bust of Chief Justice John Marshall facing left. On the outer periphery are the words “CHIEF JUSTICE UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT 1801-1835” and year of issue. To the left of the bust design are the words “JOHN MARSHALL LIBERTY” and to the right of the bust design are the words “IN GOD WE TRUST” and the mintmark “P” for Philadelphia. In the lower right of the bust design are the designer's initials “JM”.
The reverse was designed by Donna Weaver and features a view of the Old Supreme Court Chamber . Below design are the words "E PLURIBUS UNUM", "ONE DOLLAR", and "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA". In the lower right portion of the design are the designer's initials "DW".
Chief Justice John Marshall
Chief Justice John Marshall was one of, if not “the” most important person in U.S. Supreme Court history. He was not famous for being the first supreme court judge (he was actually the 4th). Though his 34 years of service and numerous cases is commendable (and the longest serving Chief Justice ever) these too are not his most famous stake in history. Marshall's most monumental & historical point of record was a court decision that came early in his career during the year 1803 in the case of Marbury versus Madison.
This decision held that the judicial branch of the government has the right to overturn an act of Congress if the Court finds that the act does not agree with the U.S. Constitution. This principle, called "judicial review," is still an important principle in Constitutional law. In one decision, Marshall established the final component of a our “Checks & Balance” system as well as establishing the power & function of the Supreme Court.
General Market Notes
Though the coinage act Public Law-108-290 allotted for a maximum mintage of 400,000 a total of only 263,849 coins were issued with proofs making up the bulk at over 196,753.
Excluding the proof mintage, the business strikes (often referred to as mint state or uncirculated coins) represents one of the smallest mintage totals in respect to other modern dollar commemorative programs making it a potential sleeper.